Date of Award

Fall 2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Organizational Leadership

First Advisor

Dr. Joshua Henson

Second Advisor

Dr. Thomas Gollery

Third Advisor

Dr. Kenneth Klosterman


Through quantitative, nonexperimental research, this study focused on follower schemas among leaders and followers. The sample included 203 leaders and followers from Canada and the United States. The research addressed a literature gap through comparing leaders and followers’ implicit beliefs. In followership literature, two prominent areas of study regarding followers’ implicit beliefs are the implicit followership theory (IFT) and follower role orientation. Although many scholars have considered IFT and role orientation as the same construct, no scholar has ever compared the theories for correlation. Thus, the study addressed another literature gap through correlation and predictive analysis tests to compare between the two constructs, which were the instruments that measure IFT and role orientation: the implicit followership scale for IFT and the coproduction and passive role orientation scale for follower role orientation. The results showed no statistical difference between leaders and followers regarding IFTs and follower role orientations. The prototypes from the implicit followership scale showed no correlation to coproduction role orientation. There was, however, a correlation and a predictive relationship between the antiprototypes from the implicit followership scale and passive role orientation. The findings are valuable for individuals, teams, leaders, followers, and organizations.

Included in

Leadership Commons