Date of Award


Document Type


Primary Advisor

Dr. Annette Graves


Whether Chinese, French, Swahili, Hindi, or English, learning a language requires time and dedication. One of the more challenging languages to learn is English, yet English is becoming more prevalent around the globe. According to a statement by Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL), English is now “the most widely taught language in the world” (“Position Statement on English as a Global Language”). Many individuals are striving not only to learn English but also to master it. These individuals include businessmen, doctors, politicians, scholars, athletes, and students. As English is swiftly becoming the international lingua franca, students especially are recognizing the importance of English fluency. To help them on their language journey, researchers are working to identify specific areas that consistently challenge non-native speakers. Once properly identified, these areas may receive more attention in English as a second language (ESL) classes and other learning materials.