Date of Award

Spring 2020

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


College of Education


Department of Education

Primary Advisor

Dr. Kevin Weaver

Second Advisor

Dr. Thomas Gollery

Third Advisor

Dr. Emile Hawkins


Learning improvements do not transpire without understanding the process of reflective writing. The aim of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to determine the degree of impact using reflective writing instruction upon study participant perceptions of confidence and competence in the area of written expression efficacy. This study also examined the effect that perceived sense of control had on perceived confidence and competence in the area of written expression. The current study was carried out with 31 participants who were undergraduate students at a small private, four-year university. Study participants’ perceptions were assessed using a three-phase, repeated measures, pre-test/post-test survey during a five-day reflective writing instructional program over the course of two weeks. In relation to the research questions, results indicated that the students’ perceptions in written expression of confidence and competence improved as a result of the reflective writing instruction. Surprisingly, perceived competence represented a greater improvement than perceived confidence. However, there was a positive correlation between perceived sense of control as a predictor of students’ perceived confidence and perceived competence in written expression.