Date of Award

Fall 2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


College of Education


Department of Education

Primary Advisor

Dr. Melinda Carver

Second Advisor

Dr. Susan Hicks

Third Advisor

Dr. Lisa A. Coscia


Many factors impact teachers’ decisions about when and how to implement technology during instruction. However, a gap exists in understanding teachers’ motivations for technology integration and face-to-face instruction. Therefore, this qualitative case study explored how teachers’ perceptions of student achievement, motivation, classroom behaviors, and digital challenges influenced their decisions about using technology or direct instruction in the classroom setting. A group of 20 teachers from two southern Florida public elementary schools completed anonymous Likert-scale surveys; six teachers participated in semi-structured interviews. The findings determined via descriptive statistics and thematic analysis revealed that teachers’ inclusion of technology and traditional resources is influenced by teachers’ perceptions of students’ achievement, motivation, behavior, and technology challenges during instruction. To increase technology inclusion, teachers stressed the importance of a balanced and ethical learning experience that promotes students’ achievement. Participants indicated that to increase teachers’ technology inclusion, greater focus must be placed on resources that enhance students’ learning and achievement rather than focusing on student motivation, behavior, and technology challenges.