Date of Award

Fall 2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


College of Education


Department of Education

Primary Advisor

Dr. Sarah Yates

Second Advisor

Dr. Thomas Gollery

Third Advisor

Dr. Lisa Coscia


Research indicates that one in five students nationwide struggles with a learning difficulty or disability that affects the student’s ability to learn (Galiatsos et al., 2019). Nationwide, Christian schools are enrolling students with disabilities (SWDs), but it is difficult to determine the specific number of SWDs enrolled in Christian schools (Association of Christian Schools International, 2021). In the inclusive school setting, whether public or private, teachers and administrators are often underprepared in their approach to the education of SWDs (Cooc, 2019; Kirk et al., 2021; Krämer et al., 2021). The purpose of this study is to explore how teaching SWDs in an inclusive setting affects the Christian school teacher’s efficacy or confidence. Further, the study considers key demographic identifiers, the power of a supportive administrator, and the relationship between these factors and teacher efficacy. Study participant perceptions of self-efficacy or confidence in educating students with disabilities were statistically significant, reflecting a very large response effect. Perceptions of administrative support were statistically significantly predictive of study participants' perceptions of self-efficacy. The survey data indicated that numerous teachers working in an inclusive Christian school are underprepared and that while access to professional development (PD) is readily available, the content of the PD appears to have a limited effect on improving teacher pedagogy or efficacy. Due to a limited sample size, the relationship between key demographic identifiers and teacher efficacy could not be statistically established. However, the study data offered promising findings regarding years of teaching experience and ESE coursework, which would benefit from future research.